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Pendants and Charms
Gemstone Beads
  

Anniversary Stones

Years of Marriage Anniversary Stone
1 Gold Jewelry
2 Garnet
3 Pearl
4 Blue Topaz
5 Sapphire
6 Amethyst
7 Onyx
8 Tourmaline
9 Lapis Lazuli
10 Diamond Jewelry
11 Turquoise
12 Jade
13 Citrine
14 Opal
15 Ruby
16 Peridot
17 Watches
18 Cat's-Eye Chrysoberyl
19 Aquamarine
20 Emerald
21 Iolite
22 Spinel
23 Imperial Topaz
24 Tanzanite
25 Silver Jubilee
30 Pearl Jubilee
35 Emerald
40 Ruby
45 Sapphire
50 Golden Jubilee
55 Alexandrite
60 Diamond Jubilee
70 Sapphire Jubilee

How to Figure the Number of Beads on a Strand or Project

BEAD SIZE 16 INCHES 18 INCHES 24 INCHES
2mm 200 225 300
3mm 132 144 200
4mm 100 112 153
5mm 82 90 124
6mm 68 76 100
8mm 50 56 76
10mm 40 45 61

It's pretty easy to calculate the number of beads needed for a length of finished strand, as follows:

  1. One inch = 25.4mm

  2. Multiply 25.4 by the number of inches of beads (excluding clasp) in the finished strand. For example, the strand will be 16". 16" x 25.4mm = 406.4 mm

  3. Divide the total number of millimeters in the final length (in this case, 406.4mm), by the diameter of the beads to be used (let's use 4mm), and the result will be number of beads. For example; 406.4mm(16") divided by 4mm= 101.6 beads.

Below is a quick guide to the number of beads of a given size needed for common strand lengths. The numbers have been rounded up for the 16" through 32" lengths, so that instead of 101.64 mm beads for the finished 16" strand, the figure is shown as 102 beads.

Beads Per Inch
Bead Size 1" 4" 16" 20" 24" 28"
3mm 8.46 33.80 135 169 203 237
4mm 6.35 25.40 102 127 152 178
5mm 5.08 20.32 81 102 122 142
6mm 4.23 16.90 68 85 102 119
7mm 3.62 14.40 58 73 87 102
8mm 3.17 12.68 51 64 76 89
10mm 2.54 10.16 41 51 61 71
12mm 2.11 8.44 34 42 51 59
14mm 1.81 7.24 29 36 44 51
16mm 1.58 6.32 25 32 38 44
18mm 1.41 5.64 23 28 34 40

Mohs Scale of Mineral Hardness

The Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material.

It was created in 1812 by the German mineralogist Friedrich Mohs and is the most popular of several definitions of hardness in materials science.

Mohs based the scale on ten minerals that are all readily available. As the hardest known naturally occurring substance when the scale was designed, diamonds are at top of the scale. (However, new minerals found from asteroids or formed during volcanic eruptions have proven to be harder) The hardness of a material is measured against the scale by finding the hardest material that the given material can scratch, and/or the softest material that can scratch the given material. For example, if some material is scratched by apatite but not by fluorite, its hardness on the Mohs scale would fall between 4 and 5.

The Mohs scale is a purely ordinal scale. For example, corundum (9) is twice as hard as topaz (8), but diamond (10) is almost four times as hard as corundum.

Hardness Mineral
1 Talc (Mg3Si4O10(OH)2)
2 Gypsum (CaSO4 2H2O)
3 Calcite (CaCO3)
4 Fluorite (CaF2)
5 Apatite (Ca5(PO4)3(OH-,Cl-,F-)
6 Feldspar (KAlSi3O8)
7 Quartz (SiO2)
8 Topaz (Al2SiO4(OH-,F-)2)
9 Corundum (Al2O3)
10 Diamond (C)

On the Mohs scale, a pencil "lead" (graphite) has a hardness of 1; a fingernail, 2.5; a copper penny, about 3.5; a knife blade, 5.5; window glass, 5.5; and a steel file, 6.5. Using these ordinary materials of known hardness can be a simple way to approximate the position of a mineral on the scale.

Seed Bead Sizes

With seed bead sizing, the rule is the larger the size number, the smaller the bead. Czech seed beads are often sold in "hanks", which are made of 12 strands, folded in half into a bundle, so that there are 24 thread ends tied off. Japanese seed beads, such as Delica beads, are usually not sold temporarily strung but are instead sold by weight measured in grams.

Seed Bead Sizing Guide
TYPE BEADS PER HANK BEADS PER IN. BEADS SIZE
(Diameter)
BEAD WT. RECOMMENDED NEEDLE & THREAD
8/0 approx. 3,220 13.5 3.1mm (approx.) 2.7 oz. (approx) Any size beading needle will work. Thread sizes D & F.
10/0 approx. 3,920 16.3 2.3mm (approx.) 1.6 oz. (approx) Needle sizes 10 and smaller. Thread sizes B, D, & F.
11/0 approx. 4,000 17 2.1mm (approx.) 1.3 oz. (approx) Needle sizes 11 and smaller. Thread sizes O,B, & D.
12/0 approx. 4,720 19.5 1.9mm (approx.) 1.2 oz. (approx) Needle sizes 12 and smaller. Thread sizes A, OO, O, & B.
13/0 approx. 4,960 21 1.7mm (approx.) 0.9 oz. (approx) Needle sizes 13 and smaller. Thread sizes A, OO, & O.
15/0 n/a 25 1.3mm (approx.) n/a Needle sizes 13 and smaller. Thread sizes A, OO, & O.

Standard Necklace & Bracelet Lengths

WOMEN
Choker - 16 inches
Princess/Pendant Length - 18 inches
Matinee - 20 - 24 inches
Opera - 28 - 32 inches
Rope - 40 - 45 inches
Long enough to be worn doubled - 45 inches or more
Lariat - 48 inches or longer, not joined at ends. Worn knotted or wrapped
Bracelet - 7 - 8 inches
Aklet - 9 inches

MEN
Choker - 18 inches
Pendant Length - 20 inches

Styles and Lengths of Necklaces

Styles:

  • Bib - multiple strands of beads, each one longer than the strand above it.

  • Graduated - beginning with the largest bead in the center front, the beads decrease equally in size on each side of the center bead towards the clasp at the center back.

  • Uniform - all beads are within .5 mm of one another, a naturally occurring variation.
Lengths*:
  • Choker - 15-16 inches. Worn above the collarbone.

  • Princess - 16 to 18 inches in length. Hangs just below the collarbone.

  • Matinee - 22 to 24 inches in length. Hangs just at or just below the bust.

  • Opera - 30 to 32 inches in length.

  • Rope or Lariat - 45 inches or longer. Can be worn as-is or wrapped to create a two-stranded choker.
*These lengths are for a woman of average build. If your overall build is larger or smaller you'll want to adjust accordingly.

Swarovksi Crystal Color Guide 1

Stone colors available from Swarovski as of February 2010.

Swarovski Crystal Color Guide 2

Stone effects and Birthstone colors available from Swarovski as of February 2010.

Swarovski Crystal Color Guide 3

Pearl colors and Pearl & Stone colors available from Swarovski as of February 2010.

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Swarovski Crystal Color Guide 4

Flatback Rhinestone colors available from Swarovski as of February 2010.

Swarovski Crystal Color Guide 5

Flatback Rhinestone Effects available from Swarovski as of February 2010.

Swarovski Flatback Rhinestone Size Chart

SS (Stone Size)   Actual Size
5ss - 1.8 mm
6ss - 2.0 mm
7ss - 2.2 mm
8ss - 2.3 mm
9ss - 2.6 mm
10ss - 2.8 mm
12ss - 3.0 mm
16ss - 4.0 mm
20ss - 4.7 mm
30ss - 6.4 mm
34ss - 7.1 mm
40ss - 8.6 mm
42ss - 9.1 mm
48ss - 11.0 mm

Weights And Measures: U.S. & Metric Equivalents Guide

U.S. LENGTH - METRIC EQUIVALENT
1 inch (in) - 2.54 cm (25.4mm)
1 foot (ft) - 30.48 cm (304.8mm)
1 yard (yd) - .914 meter (m)

METRIC LENGTH - U.S EQUIVALENT
1 mm (millimeters) - just over 1/32 of an inch
2 mm - just over 1/16 of an inch
3 mm - 1/8 of an inch
4 mm - 5/32 of an inch
5 mm - 3/16 of an inch
6 mm - 1/4 of an inch
7 mm - 9/32 of an inch
8 mm - 5/16 of an inch
9 mm - 11/32 of an inch
1 centimeter or 10 mm - 3/8 of an inch
1 meter (m) - 39.37 in

WEIGHT EQUIVALENTS
1 ounce (oz) = .0625 lb = 28.349 gram (gm)
1 gram (gm) = .001 kg = 0.035 oz

Wire Gauge Guide

GAUGE DIAMETER (IN) DIAMETER (MM) COMMON USES
10 gauge 0.1019 in. 2.588mm Very thick wire. Often used by silver smiths using forging or welding techniques. Good for chokers, stiff bracelets, rings.
12 gauge 0.0808 in. 2.052mm Still very thick wire, still hard to bend intricately by hand. Good for chokers, stiff bracelets, even wire-sculpted rings.
14 gauge 0.0641 in. 1.628mm Heavier Wire. Good for chokers, stiff bracelets, even wire-sculpted rings.
16 gauge 0.0508 in. 1.290 mm Heavy Wire. Commonly used for chokers, heavy-duty clasps
18 gauge 0.0403 in. 1.024mm Med-Heavy Wire. Good for making clasps, chokers, wire sculptures.
20 Gauge 0.0320 in. 0.8128mm Medium wire. Size most often recommended for creating wire-jewelry using wire jigs and other wire sculpturing techniques. Good for making heavy-duty earwires and lightweight clasps because it’s still pretty easy to work with but strong as well. Dead soft is best, as thicker wire starts getting harder to bend. About 19 feet of 20 gauge wire to the ounce.
22 Gauge 0.0253 in. 0.6426mm Medium-Fine Wire. Very versatile size because it is pretty thick but most beads (like crystals and stone beads) can fit on it. Dead soft is a good way to go with this wire. Good for making earwires, headpins, and rosary style wrapped links. One ounce of 22 gauge has about 31 feet of wire.
24 Gauge 0.0201 in. 0.5105mm Fine wire. Good for beads that have small holes in them such as pearls. Half-hard is good in this size as it adds a little bit of body and strength to a slender wire. Good for making rosary-style beaded links. In an ounce of 24 gauge there is about 48 feet of wire.
26 Gauge 0.0159 in 0.4039mm Very fine wire. Good for beads that have small holes in them such as pearls. Half-hard is good in this size as it adds a little bit of body and strength to a very slender wire. Good for making rosary-style beaded links. In an ounce of 26 gauge wire there is about 76 feet of wire.
28 Gauge 0.0126 in. *0.3200mm Extremely fine wire, not much wider than a human hair. Mostly used for wire crocheting and wire knitting. Hard to handle, tendency to get tangled.